References and Study Materials

  1. Bolin, B., 1960.  On the Exchange of Carbon Dioxide between the Atmosphere and the Sea.  Attached pdf.
  1. Broecker, W.S., and Peng, T.H., 1973. Gas Exchange rates between air and sea.  Attached pdf.
  1. Lee, S-H. et al, A Laboratory Experiment To Measure Henry’s Law Constants of Volatile Organic Compounds with a Bubble Column and a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID).(attached pdf, copyrighted.)
  1. Sander, R. Compilation of Henry’s law constants (version 4.0) for water as solvent.
  1. NIST Chemistry WebBook, SRD 69, for Carbon Dioxide.
  1. Dickson, A.G, et al.  Andrew G. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego, INTRODUCTION TO CO2 CHEMISTRY IN SEA WATER.  (attached)
Henry’s Law Constants.

Sander, R.: Compilation of Henry’s law constants (version 5.0.0) for water as solvent, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 23, 10901–12440,, 2023. Note this is a compilation of thousands of measurements made by many scientists over many decades; this is not new information yet it seems barely known and rarely recognized in climate science. Henry’s Law constants can be measured in the lab or field; the math derives from the gas laws of physics.

Sander, R. Compilation of Henry’s law constants (version 4.0) for water as solvent R. Sander. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 4399–4981, 2015 doi:10.5194/acp-15-4399-2015

Regarding Graham’s law of effusion and diffusion:

Pinatubo Study
our plan to overturn the climate change alarmism and green energy movements

Henry’s Law Constants

Global sea-air CO2 flux based on climatological surface ocean pCO2, and seasonal biological and temperature effects. Taro Takahashi a, Stewart C. Sutherland a, Colm Sweeney a, Alain Poisson b, Nicolas Metzl b, Bronte Tilbrook c, Nicolas Bates d, Rik WanninkHof e, Richard A. Feely f, Christopher Sabine f, Jon Olafsson g, Yukihiro Nojiri December 2002. Deep Sea Research Part II Topical Studies in Oceanography 49(9-10):1601-1622. DOI: 10.1016/S0967-0645(02)00003-6. Downloadable pdf here: 2/carbondioxide/pages/air_sea_flux_2000.html”> They have a paper in 2015 which I have not yet read. Henry’s Law is implicit in these work but rarely if ever mentioned. Mike Brown referenced on of their papers.)

1. The elements of experimental chemistry. By Henry, William, 1774-1836. n 84082167. Pub.1818.

2. Rocke, Alan J. (2005). “In Search of El Dorado: John Dalton and the Origins of the Atomic Theory”. Social Research. 72 (1): 125–158. JSTOR 40972005. S2CID 141350239

3. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Volume 3, 1830-1837, page 439. (Ref. 506 42 R9 at Manchester, UK Central Library).

Henry’s Law Research Paper from 1803
A Gas Chromatographic Method for the Determination of Bicarbonate and Dissolved Gases including’s_law

The Kinetic Molecular Theory:

Avoid Common Pitfalls when using Henry’s Law. Allan H. Harvey, Francis L. Smith (2007). NIST.

Forms of Henry’s Law: There are various forms Henry’s law which are discussed in the technical literature.’s_law.html

The Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Low Pressure. John J. Carroll, John D. Slupsky, Alan E. Mather; J. Phys. Chem. Ref. data 1 November 1991; 20 (6): 1201–1209. (avail in pdf only $40.) Abstract: “The system carbon dioxide‐water is of great scientific and technological importance. Thus, it has been studied often. The literature for the solubility of carbon dioxide in water is vast and interdisciplinary. An exhaustive survey was conducted and approximately 100 experimental investigations were found that reported equilibrium data at pressures below 1 MPa. A model based on Henry’s law was used to correlate the low pressure data (those up to 1 MPa). The following correlation of the Henry’s constants (expressed on a mole fraction basis) was developed ln(H21/MPa)=−6.8346+1.2817×104/T−3.7668×106/T2 +2.997×108/T3 The correlation is valid for 273
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